A Review of Risk Factors and Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetes Care - 2011

REVIEW, July 2011, VOL I ISSUE III, ISSN 2042-4884
10.5083/ejcm.20424884.43 , Cite or Link Using DOI
Creating a Digital Object Identifier Link

A digital object identifier (DOI) can be used to cite and link to electronic documents. A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it to link permanently to electronic documents.

To find a document using a DOI

  1. Copy the DOI of the document you want to open.
    The correct format for citing a DOI is as follows: doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61345-8
  2. Open the following DOI site in your browser:
    dx.doi.org
  3. Enter the entire DOI citation in the text box provided, and then click Go.
    The document that matches the DOI citation will display in your browser window.

The DOI scheme is administered by the International DOI Foundation. Many of the world's leading publishers have come together to build a DOI-based document linking scheme known as CrossRef.

Jan Cederholm, Peter M Nilsson

This review presents results from recent trials and observational studies on risk factors and cardiovascular disease. Treatment goals are provided that should be preferable for most patients in diabetes care, even if these recommendations should be combined with clinical judgement and individual preferences.

HbA1c as risk factor for cardiovascular disease

Evidence exists today from observational studies that hyperglycemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, with a risk increase per 1 %-unit increase in HbA1c of 27% in type 1 diabetes (1) and 11-16% in type 2 diabetes (2, 3), independently of clinical characteristics and other traditional risk factors. A risk reduction by glucose-lowering has most obviously been demonstrated in patients with type 1 diabetes, often younger or middle-aged with less traditional risk factors than patients with type 2 diabetes.