Antioxidant Effect of Vitamin C on Lipid Profile Parameters in Paraquat treated Male Rats (Rattus Norvegicus)

ORIGINAL RESEARCH, August 2013, VOL II ISSUE III, ISSN 2042-4884
10.5083/ejcm.20424884.103 , Cite or Link Using DOI
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Benjamin N. Okolonkwo, Pascal C. Eneh, Ibharokhonre Victor

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM


The continual use of paraquat (PQ), an herbicide, in the recreational, agricultural and industrial facilities for the control of weeds has severally been linked with medical emergency poisoning cases associated with cardiovascular diseases. To buttress these views in this present study, we carried out an analysis on cardiac lipid markers [Total cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), High density lipoprotein (HDL) and Low density lipoprotein (LDL)] of male rats under PQ insult, with and without vitamin C given to the rats as an antioxidant. We hoped to discover if truly PQ affects lipids, and if so, in what way and could it be arrested by the subsequent use of a potent antioxidant (vitamin C).

METHODS

Male rats in subgroups (A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, C2, D1 and D2) were intraperitoneally (ip) injected with different sub-lethal increasing doses {0, 0.02, 0.04, and 0.06 g/kg body weight (BW)} of PQ respectively on monthly basis. The subgroups (A2, B2, C2 and D2) were subsequently given 200mg/L vitamin C, while the subgroups (A1, B1, C1 and D1) received only water. At the end of every month 2mls of blood samples were taken from 4 animals per subgroup under anesthetics and following internationally approved standard protocol on Animal care.

RESULTS

There was a dose and time of exposure dependent reduction in TC values of both the vitamin c treated and the non-vitamin c treated subgroups. The increased TC values observed in the control were significantly lower (P ≤ 0.05) in the results of the subgroup on vitamin C (A2) when compared to the subgroup without vitamin C (A1) even as the time of exposure increased. The test subgroups (B1, B2, C1, C2, D1 and D2) gave a dose and exposure time dependent reduction in its TC values when compared to that of the control subgroups (A1 and A2) at P ≤ 0.05. The vitamin C treated test subgroups (B2, C2 and D2) were not statistically different from that of the non-vitamin C treated test subgroups (B1, C1 and D1). The TG values obtained indicated a significant reduction (P ≤ 0.001) in the test subgroups (B1, B2, C1, C2, D1 and D2) when compared to the control subgroups (A1 and A2), and the reduction correlated with time of exposure only. This same trend was observed in the values obtained the results of HDL and LDL. The values obtained showed that vitamin C treatment did not in any way affect the toxicity effect of PQ on lipid parameters estimated.

CONCLUSION

The results obtained indicates that PQ toxicity causes a reduction in the lipid parameters studied and that vitamin C given did not in any way, positively or negatively, affect the trend the toxicity followed. Meaning that vitamin C, within the scope of this study, cannot ameliorate the toxicity of PQ on lipid parameters.