Association of Breast Arterial Calcification Presence and Gradation with the Ankle-Brachial Index among Postmenopausal Women

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DOI: 10.5083ejcm20424884.158 , Cite or Link Using DOI
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Carlos Iribarren, Gabriela Sanchez, Meng Lu, Fatemeh Azamian Bidgoli, Hyo-Min Cho, Huanjun Ding, Sabee Molloi

ABSTRACT

Objective: To examine the association of breast arterial calcification (BAC) with the ankle brachial index (ABI), a sensitive metric of peripheral arterial disease (PAD), among postmenopausal women. Background: BAC is an emerging risk marker of cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Methods: MINERVA (MultIethNic study of brEast aRterial calcium gradation and cardioVAscular disease) is a cohort of women aged 60 to 79 at baseline (10/24/2012 - 2/13/2015) who were free of symptomatic CVD at baseline. The analytical sample comprised 3,800 women with available ABI, BAC assessment and covariates. We performed cross-sectional logistic regression analysis.

Results: 203 women (5.3%) had an ABI < 0.90 indicative of PAD, 26 (0.7%) had an ABI > 1.3 and 94% (n=3,571) had an ABI within normal limits. After adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, smoking status, diabetes, hypertension, LDL-C, HDL-C, hs-CRP, estimated-GFR, urinary albu- min/creatinine ratio, serum calcium, serum vitamin D and serum PTH, BAC presence remained sig- nificantly associated with ABI < 0.90 (OR=1.37; 95% CI, 1.01-1.87; p=0.04). After further adjustment for menopausal hormone therapy, parity and history of breast feeding, the association became marginally significant (OR=1.36; 95% CI, 0.99-1.85; p=0.05). No clear pattern of association was observed for increased gradation of BAC and ABI<0.9, and no significant associations were noted between BAC presence vs. absence or BAC gradation with ABI > 1.3.

Conclusions: Among asymptomatic postmenopausal women, presence of BAC was associated with PAD independently of traditional risk factors. Additional prospective studies are required to estab- lish the value of BAC for prediction of incident PAD in the general population.