Early changes of left atrial volumes and function in subjects with prehypertension: a cross-sectional study

ORIGINAL RESEARCH, June 2016, VOL IV ISSUE I, ISSN 2042-4884
10.5083/ejcm.20424884.149 , Cite or Link Using DOI
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Inas Eweda, Khaled El-Meniawy, Mahmoud Sakr, Wail Nammas

ABSTRACT

Objectives:
We explored the early changes in left atrial (LA) volume and function in subjects with prehypertension, versus healthy controls, as revealed by 2-D echocardiography.

Background: Hypertension is associated with increased LA volumes and deterioration of LA function.

Methods: We enrolled 50 consecutive subjects with prehypertension, and 50 controls. All subjects underwent 2D echocardiography for measurement of LA dimensions and volumes. LA volume was measured at three points of cardiac cycle: maximal LA volume (LAV-max) at the end of ventricular systole immediately before mitral valve opening, pre-atrial contraction volume (LAV-p) immediately before LA contraction at the onset of P wave on electrocardiogram, and minimal LA volume
(LAV-min) immediately after mitral valve closure. LA passive, active, and total emptying volumes and fractions were calculated.

Results: Mean age was 30.1 ± 6.9 years; 88% males. Both LA anteroposterior and longitudinal dimensions were larger in the prehypertensive group, versus controls (p<0.05 for both). Both LAV-max and LAV-p were larger in the prehypertensive group (p<0.05 for both), whereas LAV-min was comparable between the 2 groups (p>0.05). The LA passive emptying fraction was lower and the LA active emptying fraction was higher in the prehypertensive group, versus controls (53 ± 5% versus 56 ± 8%, and 29 ± 6% versus 24 ± 7%, p=0.03 and 0.009, respectively), whereas the LA total emptying fraction was comparable between the 2 groups (p=0.26).

Conclusions: In patients with prehypertension, LA dimensions and volumes are higher, LA passive emptying fraction lower and LA active emptying fraction higher, versus matched controls.