Serum Total Homocysteine Level: A True Cardiovascular Risk Factor or an Acute Phase Reactant Protein?

ORIGINAL RESEARCH, July 2011, VOL I ISSUE IV, ISSN 2042-4884
10.5083/ejcm.20424884.44 , Cite or Link Using DOI
Creating a Digital Object Identifier Link

A digital object identifier (DOI) can be used to cite and link to electronic documents. A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it to link permanently to electronic documents.

To find a document using a DOI

  1. Copy the DOI of the document you want to open.
    The correct format for citing a DOI is as follows: doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61345-8
  2. Open the following DOI site in your browser:
    dx.doi.org
  3. Enter the entire DOI citation in the text box provided, and then click Go.
    The document that matches the DOI citation will display in your browser window.

The DOI scheme is administered by the International DOI Foundation. Many of the world's leading publishers have come together to build a DOI-based document linking scheme known as CrossRef.

Muhammad Naeem Afzal, Malik A Humayoun, Tariq Waseem, Muhammad Abbas Raza, Arslan Masood, Javed Akram

INTRODUCTION

Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death in the developed world. In Pakistan; the disease seems to follow an accelerated course with ischaemic events occurring a decade earlier than those reported worldwide. While many risk factors of cardiovascular diseases are well established, many are still under evaluation; like homocysteine, which is now being considered an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases.

Homocysteine is a sulfur containing amino acid which is not our dietary constituent but is formed by metabolism of methionine, another amino acid present in our daily protein diet. In case of excess formation of homocysteine as compared to its consumption, it appears in urine if levels are too high3. Normal plasma homocysteine concentration ranges from 5 to 15μmol/litre. Of this, almost 75% is bound to proteins, especially albumin, through disulfide bond. Classification of hyperhomocysteinemia described by Kang SS 4 is followed widely.

Moderate hyperhomocysteinemia (15 to 30 μmol/litre)
Intermediate hyperhomocysteinemia (30 to 100μmol/litre)
Severe hyperhomocysteinemia (>100 μmol/litre)